Kubernetes – with Minikube and Helm – part 1

Intro:

This is the first of two posts on Kubernetes and Helm Charts, focusing on setting up a local development environment for Kubernetes using Minikube, then exploring Helm for package management and quickly and easily deploying several applications to the cluster – NGINX, Jenkins, WordPress with a MariaDB backend, MySQL and Redis.

The content is taken from the practical/demo session I wrote and published in Github here:

https://github.com/AutomatedIT/presentations/blob/master/minikube_demo.md

for this Meetup session we ran in Edinburgh in June 2019:

“Kubernetes – getting started with Minikube, Helm and Tiller” https://www.meetup.com/Automated-IT-Solutions/events/261623765/

<ramble>

One of the key objectives and challenges here was getting a useful local Kubernetes environment up and running as quickly and easily as possible for as wide an audience as we could- there’s so much to the Kubernetes ecosystem that it’s very easy to get side-tracked, and we could have (happily) spent a long time discussing the myriad of alternative possible solutions.

We plan to go “deeper” on all of this in future sessions and have an in-depth Helm session in the works, but for this session we were focused on creating a practical starting point.

</ramble>

Don

What is covered here:

  • Minikube – what it is (& isn’t) & why you’d use it (or not)
  • Kubernetes and Minikube components and concepts
  • setup for Mac and Linux
  • creating a first Kubernetes cluster in Minikube
  • minikube addons – what they are and how they can help you
  • minikube docker env – using DOCKER_HOST with minikube VM
  • Kubernetes dashboard with Heapster and Metrics Server – made easy by Minikube
  • kubectl – some examples and alternatives
  • example app – “hello (Kubernetes) world” minikube style with NGINX, scaling your world

and the second post covers:

  • Helm and Tiller – what they are, when & why you’d maybe use them
  • Helm and Tiller – prep, install and Helm Charts
  • Deploying Jenkins via Helm Charts
  • and WordPress w/MariaDB too
  • wrap up

Minikube – what it is (& isn’t) & why you’d use it (or not)


What it is, why you’d use it etc.

Local development of k8s – runs a single node Kubernetes cluster in a Virtual Machine on your laptop/PC.

All about making things easy for local development, it is not a production solution, or even close to it.

There are many other ways to run k8s, they all have their pros and cons and use cases. The slides form the Meetup covered this on more detail and include links for further info – they are available here:

Kubernetes and Minikube components and concepts

The (above) slides also cover this section:
Kubernetes components and concepts
what it solves
how Minikube works


Setup for Mac and Linux

There are three things you need to set up for this, they are:
VirtualBox: https://www.virtualbox.org/wiki/Downloads
Minikube: https://kubernetes.io/docs/tasks/tools/install-minikube/
kubectl: https://kubernetes.io/docs/tasks/tools/install-kubectl/

Using Ubuntu for example:

curl -Lo minikube https://storage.googleapis.com/minikube/releases/v1.1.0/minikube-linux-amd64 && chmod +x minikube && sudo cp minikube /usr/local/bin/ && rm minikube

curl -LO https://storage.googleapis.com/kubernetes-release/release/v1.14.0/bin/linux/amd64/kubectl

`chmod +x ./kubectl

`sudo mv ./kubectl /usr/local/bin/kubectl`

Cleanup/prep – if required, remove any previous cluster & settings

`minikube delete; rm -rf ~/.minikube`

Creating a first Kubernetes cluster in Minikube

Here we create a first Kubernetes cluster with Minikube, then take a look around in & outside of the VM.

With the above initial setup done, it’s as simple as running this in a shell:

minikube start

Note you could optionally give this Cluster a name, if you are likely to have more than one for different branches of development for example. This is also where you could specify the VM provider if you want to use something other than VirtualBox – there are more details here:

https://kubernetes.io/docs/setup/learning-environment/minikube/#starting-a-cluster

This should produce output like the following, and it may well take a few minutes as the VM is downloaded and started, then a stack of Docker images are started up inside that….

At this point you should be able to see the minikube VM running in the VirtualBox GUI:

Now it’s running, we can connect from our local shell directly to the one inside the running VM by simply issuing:

minikube ssh

This will put you inside the VM where the Kubernetes Cluster is being run, and we can see and interact with the running components, for example:

docker images

should show all of the downloaded images:

and you could do this to see the running containers:

docker ps

Quitting out of the VM puts us back on the local host, where we can use kubectl to query the status of the Minikube cluster – the initial setup has told kubectl about the Minikube-managed Kubernetes Cluster, meaning there’s no other setup required here:

kubectl cluster-info

kubectl get nodes

kubectl describe nodes

minikube addons – what they are and how they can help you

Show some of the ways minkube makes things easier for local dev

First, take a moment to look around these two local folders:

ls -al ~/.minikube; ls -al ~/.kube

These are where Minikube keeps its settings and the VM Image, and where kubectl settings are persisted – and updated by Minikube.

With Minikube you’ve often got the option to either use kubectl directly, or to use some Minikube built-in features to make your life easier.

Addons are one of these features, allowing you to very easily add – or remove – functionality from the cluster like this:

minikube addons list

minikube addons enable heapster

minikube addons enable metrics-server

With those three lines we’ve taken a look at the available addons and their current status, and selected to enable both heapster and the metrics server. This was done to give us cpu and mem stats in the Kubernetes Dashboard, which we will set up in a moment. The output should look something like this:

minikube config view

shows the current state of the config – i.e. what changes have been made, so we can keep a track of them easily.

kubectl --namespace kube-system get pods

now we can enable the dashboard:

minikube addons enable dashboard

and check again to see the current state

minikube addons list

we’ll connect to the Dashboard and take a look around in a moment, but first…

minikube docker env – using the DOCKER_HOST in you minikube VM – how & why


Minikube docker-env – setup local docker client to use minikube docker host

We’re going to look at connecting our local docker client to the docker host inside the Minikube VM. This is made easy by:

minikube docker-env

if you run that command on its own it wiull show you what settings it will export and you can set them by doing:

eval ${minikube docker-env}

From then on, in that shell, your local docker commands will use the docker host inside Minikube.

This is very useful for debugging and local development – when you change and deploy anything to your Kubernetes Cluster, you can easily tail the logs or check for errors or issues. You can also do all of this via the dashboard or kubectl too if you prefer, but it’s another handy and powerful feature from Minikube.

The following image shows the result of running this command:

eval $(minikube docker-env) && docker ps | grep -i metrics

so we can now use our local docker client to run docker commands like…

docker ps

docker ps | grep -i metrics

docker logs -f <some container id>

etc.

Kubernetes dashboard with Heapster and Metrics Server – made easy by Minikube

Minikube k8s dashboard – here we will start up the k8s dashboard and take look around.

We’ve delayed starting the dashboard up until after we enabled the metrics-server & heapster components we deployed earlier. By doing it in this order, the dashboard will automatically detect and use these components, giving us cpu & mem stats and a nicer looking dash, with no additional config required.

Starting the dashboard simply involved running

minikube dashboard

and waiting for a minute…

That should fire up your browser automatically, then you can take a look around at things like Default namespace > Nodes

and in the namespace kube-system > Deployments

and kube-system > Pods

You can see the logs and statuses of everything running in your k8s cluster – from the core components we covered at the start, to the dashboard, metrics and heapster we enabled recently, and the application we’re going to deploy and scale up soon.

kubectl – some examples and alternatives

# kubectl command line – look at kubectl and keep an eye on things
kubectl get deployment -n kube-system

kubectl get pods -o wide -n kube-system

kubectl get services

kubectl

example app – “hello (Kubernetes) world” minikube style with NGINX, scaling your world

Now we’ll deploy the most basic application we can – a “Hello World” style NGINX docker image.

It’s as simple as this, where nginx is the name of the docker image you want to deploy, hello-nginx is the label you want to give it, and port 80 is where you want it to listen:

kubectl run hello-nginx --image=nginx --port=80

that shouldn’t take long, and you can watch the progress like this:

kubectl get pods -o wide

We can then expose the deployment using NodePort:

kubectl expose deployment hello-nginx --type=NodePort

then we can ask Minikube to provide the URL for Ingress:

minikube service --url=true hello-nginx

and hitting that URL in your browser should show the obvious:

“Welcome to nginx!

If you see this page, the nginx web server is successfully installed and working. Further configuration is required.”

you can keep an eye on the Service with

kubectl get svc

while we scale to x3 replicas:

kubectl scale --replicas=3 deployment/hello-nginx

and take a look at what happens with

kubectl get deployment

kubectl get pods -o wide

or check in the Dashboard to see something like this:

and monitor what’s going on in our “hello world” NGINX app with kubectl then scale it down to 0 or 1 or whatever you like…

kubectl get deployment

kubectl get pods -o wide

kubectl scale --replicas=0 deployment/hello-nginx

Next post – Helm & Tiller onwards…

Meetup – Kubernetes with Minikube and Helm Charts

We are presenting a Kubernetes-related Meetup on Wednesday 5th June in Edinburgh.

This time we explore setting up a local development environment for Kubernetes using Minikube and Helm Charts. We will deploy NGINX to the Cluster and scaled it up and down, then use Helm Charts to deploy Jenkins, WordPress and MariaDB.

if you’d like to join in please book a space via our Meetup (below) – it’s free, and the Peoples Postcode Lottery are kindly hosting the event and providing the beer and pizza too! Wednesday 5th June 2019 from 6:30 PM in the Peoples Postcode Lottery offices at 28 Charlotte Square in Edinburgh.

Kubernetes – getting started with Minikube, Helm and Tiller

Wednesday, Jun 5, 2019, 6:30 PM

Wemyss House
28 Charlotte Square Edinburgh, GB

38 Members Went

In collaboration with Hays and the People’s Postcode Lottery, Automated IT Solutions are running a Meetup on Kubernetes with Minikube, Helm and Tiller. The session starts off with an overview of the main Kubernetes concepts and components, then runs through building your own local Kubernetes Cluster with Minikube. After deploying and scaling our fi…

Check out this Meetup →


I have been planning this session for ages, and hope that it will become the basis for several future talks and ideas, including deploying Blockchain to a Kubernetes cluster, then adding a Ruby and Sinatra based application that will use it.

Extending Jenkins book

My new book, Extending Jenkins by Donald Simpson, has been published!

Here’s a free sample: Chapter 8 – Testing and Debugging Jenkins Plugins

You can buy the full book in either electronic or paperback format direct from the publishers or through Amazon here in the UK or Amazon in the US

About This Book

  • Find out how to interact with Jenkins from within Eclipse, NetBeans, and IntelliJ IDEA
  • Develop custom solutions that act upon Jenkins information in real time
  • A step-by-step, practical guide to help you learn about extension points in existing plugins and how to build your own plugin

Who This Book Is For

This book is aimed primarily at developers and administrators who are interested in taking their interaction and usage of Jenkins to the next level.

The book assumes you have a working knowledge of Jenkins and programming in general, and an interest in learning about the different approaches to customizing and extending Jenkins so it fits your requirements and your environment perfectly.

Table of Contents

1: Preparatory Steps
2: Automating the Jenkins UI
3: Jenkins and the IDE
4: The API and the CLI
5: Extension Points
6: Developing Your Own Jenkins Plugin
7: Extending Jenkins Plugins
8: Testing and Debugging Jenkins Plugins
9: Putting Things Together

What You Will Learn

  • Retrieve and act upon Jenkins information in real time
  • Find out how to interact with Jenkins through a variety of IDEs
  • Develop your own Form and Input validation and customization
  • Explore how Extension points work, and develop your own Jenkins plugin
  • See how to use the Jenkins API and command-line interface
  • Get to know how to remotely update your Jenkins configuration
  • Design and develop your own Information Radiator
  • Discover how Jenkins customization can help improve quality and reduce costs

In Detail

Jenkins CI is the leading open source continuous integration server. It is written in Java and has a wealth of plugins to support the building and testing of virtually any project. Jenkins supports multiple Software Configuration Management tools such as Git, Subversion, and Mercurial.

This book explores and explains the many extension points and customizations that Jenkins offers its users, and teaches you how to develop your own Jenkins extensions and plugins.

First, you will learn how to adapt Jenkins and leverage its abilities to empower DevOps, Continuous Integration, Continuous Deployment, and Agile projects. Next, you will find out how to reduce the cost of modern software development, increase the quality of deliveries, and thereby reduce the time to market. We will also teach you how to create your own custom plugins using Extension points.

Finally, we will show you how to combine everything you learned over the course of the book into one real-world scenario.

Beginning Docker video course

Blog updates have been scarce recently as I have been busy working on a couple of publications… the first of which has just been released:

This is a hands-on video course packed with practical examples to get you started with Docker.

Here is the course overview video:

And here is a free sample video from Section 2, “Docker Basics” where we take a look at running containers and the 3 different types of “containerized” commands:

and this final sample video is taken from Section 5 – “Running a Web Application with Docker“.

In this clip we build our own web application using Python, pip and Redis, which we will then “dockerize” and ship to “production”:

More detail from the Packt website:

About This Video

  • Master Docker commands by creating and publishing a sample web application
  • Build and manage your own custom Docker Containers to set up data sources, filesystems, and networking
  • Build your own personal Heroku PaaS with Dokku

Who This Video Is For

If you’re a developer who wants to learn about Docker, a powerful tool to manage your applications effectively on various platforms, this course is perfect for you! It assumes basic knowledge of Linux but supplies everything you need to know to get your own Docker environment up and running.

What You Will Learn

  • Build new Docker containers and find and manage existing ones
  • Use the Docker Index, and create your own private one by using containers
  • Discover ways to automate Docker, and harness the power of containers!
  • Build your own Docker powered mini-Heroku Paas with Dokku
  • Set up Docker on your environment based on your application’s custom requirements
  • Master Docker patterns and enhancements using the Ambassador and Minimal containers

In Detail

One of the major challenges while creating an application is adapting your application to run smoothly on all of the plethora of operating systems available. Docker is an extremely efficient technology that allows you to wrap all your code along with its supporting files into a single bundle; it also guarantees that your application will behave in the same way on any host powered by Docker. You can also easily reuse existing Docker containers or create and publish your own. Unlike Virtual Machines, Docker containers are lightweight and more efficient.

Beginning Docker starts with the fundamentals of Docker—explaining how it works, how to set it up, and how to get started on leveraging the benefits of this technology. The course goes on to cover more advanced features and shows you how to create and share your own Docker images.

You will learn how to install Docker on your own machine, then how to manage it effectively, and then progress to creating and publishing your very own application. You will then learn a bit more about Docker Containers; built-in features and commands such as volumes, mounts, ports, and linking and constraining containers; before diving into running a web application.

Docker has functionality such as the Docker web API to handle complex automation processes which will be explained in detail. You will also learn how to use the Docker Hub to fetch and share containers, before running through the creation of your own Docker powered mini-Heroku

Beginning Docker covers everything required to get you up and running with Docker, with detailed real-world examples and helpful tips to make sure you get the most from it.

Style and Approach

An easy-to-follow and structured video tutorial with practical examples of Docker to help you get to grips with each and every aspect.

The course will take you on a journey from the basics to the advanced application of Docker containers, and includes several real-world scenarios to learn from.

Cheers,

Don